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Histories:  Trempealeau Co. Historical Accounts:

"History of Trempealeau County Wisconsin, 1917":

Chapter 3

Recapitulation (End Notes)

(by George H. Squier)

-As transcribed from pages 34 - 35

Note. -- Charles F. Brown, in the Wisconsin Archaeologist, Vol. 5, Nos. 3-4, April to October, 1906, pp. 392-398, gives the following resume of the Archaeological remains in Trempealeau County:

Trempealeau Township. --

(a) Mounds and earthwork near the Mississippi, opposite Homer. Reported by L. H. Bunnell, Smithsonian Report, 1871, p. 430. Large group of mounds on the Gladsten property, south of Pine Creek, near Pine Creek Station.

(b) Mound west of Mr. Booher's residence at Trempealeau. Several mounds in close proximity to the Baptist church at Trempealeau. (G. H. Squier says there was but one.)

(c) Other mounds on the ridges of the bluffs not far from Trempealeau. Human bones and vessels found in them. Mentioned by L. H. Bunnell, Winona and Environs (Winona, 1897), pp. 84, 37 and 89. Oval mound on Wm. Nicholls' place at Trempealeau. Tabular mound on the south side of Third street at Trempealeau. (Identical with third item.) Series of three platforms on the crest of a hill at Trempealeau. Mounds and fireplaces near the former location of Fort Perrot. Scattered bones found in some of the mounds.

(d) Group of conical mounds near the southeast corner of Mt. Trempealeau. Also single mounds nearby. Described and mentioned by G. H. Squier, Wisconsin Archaeologist, Vol. 4, No.2 (1905), pp. 25-34. The tabular mound briefly described by L. Kessinger, History Buffalo County, pp., 75-76. "Pictograph" rock bearing Indian carvings, on an exposed sandstone ledge on Trempealeau river, 2 1/2 miles northwest of Trempealeau. Described by T. H. Lewis, American Naturalist, September, 1889; mentioned by C. E. Brown, Wisconsin Archaeologist, Vol. 5, No. 1-(1905).

Gale Township. --

(d) Effigy mounds at Galesville and vicinity. Mentioned by George Gale, The Upper Mississippi (1867), p. 14; and by L. H. Bunnell, Winona and Environ (1897), p. 87, also in Galesville Transcript, Nov. 25, 1860.

(e) Rock shelter at Galesville, the sides of which are covered with carvings representing snakes, birds, mammals and men. Reported by T. H. Lewis, August, 1905; mentioned by C. E. Brown, Wisconsin Archaeologist, Vol. 5, No.1 (1905), p. 218.

Caledonia Township. --

(f) Group of effigy mounds on the west side of Black river, N. 1/2 Sec. 10, T. 18 N., R. 8 W.

Briefly described by T. H. Lewis, Science, Vol. 13, p. 188; also in Tracts for Archaeology, Vol. 1 (1880), and figure.

The list as given is a correct bibliography of the subject as far as, I am aware. I have indicated above such as are duplications or were based on incomplete knowledge. (G. H. S.)

(a) I have made repeated inquiries as to this group, but can learn of nothing save the Pine Creek group, which is nearly opposite Homer.

(b) This was originally a large conical mount like the Nicholls mound. The top was scraped away some time in the late fifties or early sixties, by Richard Towner, now dead.

This, that near the Baptist church, and others of which I have seen traces, made up a considerable group once occupying the site of Trempealeau.

(c) Although not numerous, there are mounds in several localities on the bluffs. On Trempealeau Mountain, Brady's Bluff, on hill back of Fort Perrot, on the main bluff, and on a lower space of Liberty Peak. These were so scattering that they could not well be plotted, as was done for the Pine Creek group, those at the bay and others.

(d) The mounds about Galesville have been so completely obliterated that scarcely anything can now be recognized.

(e) Unless the one in the park from which the spring issues is intended, I do not know to what he refers. That Indians may have used it for shelter and left markings in it is not improbable, but even in the late sixties when I first visited it, these had been largely supplanted by the work of the whites.

(f) There are, or were, several groups along the west side of Black river containing effigies. It is not clear to which he refers.

Judge Gale's work approached nearer to a systematic study of the archeology of the county than any of the others. His acquaintance was very wide. It is unfortunate that he left so few notes to aid in locating the features he mentions. Mr. Bunnell was a keen observer, but his work was only incidental. Mr. Lewis spent a few days in the vicinity, giving considerable attention to the archaeology.


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